Wednesday, November 16, 2016

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND SPECIATION OF ACAVIDAE FAMILY: A CASE STUDY FROM FOSSIL AND LIVING SPECIES OF BATADOMBALENA CAVE PRE-HISTORIC SITE IN SRI LANKA

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ සබරගමු ද්‍රෝණිය ආශ්‍රීත පුරාතන පරිසරය  “ACAVIDAE”  කුලයේ ගොලුබෙල්ලන්ගේ භාහිර රූප  විද්‍යාත්මක ලක්ෂණ ඇසුරෙන් ගොඩනැගීමමේ පළමු අධියරය සාර්ථක ලෙස නිමකිරීමට ශ්‍රී ලාංකික පර්යේෂණ කණ්ඩායමක් පසුගියදා සමත්විය
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Geographical Series (Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste, Romania) අන්තර්ජාතික සගරාවේ ඔක්තෝබර් කලාපයේ  ප්‍රකාශයට පත්කර ඇත.

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND SPECIATION OF ACAVIDAE FAMILY: A CASE STUDY FROM FOSSIL AND LIVING SPECIES OF BATADOMBALENA CAVE PRE-HISTORIC SITE IN SRI LANKA

A sufficient knowledge on prehistoric culture and habitat of earliest Homo sapiens (Balangoda man) is available in Batadomba-lena cave, a noticeable rock shelter in lowland rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka goes upto Pleistocene and Holocene eras. Late Pleistocene inhabitants of Batadombalena cave’s foraged for a broad spectrum of plant and mainly arboreal animal resources such as, monkeys, squirrels and rainforest snails etc. Archaeo-faunal evidence would help to describe the prehistoric man eating behavior as well as availability of nature pre-historic flora, fauna and environmental status. The family Acavidae is very sensitive to climatic variations, hence used as a bio-indicator to describe the variations of paleo-climatic nature. This study examined the morphological features of 20 samples of Acavidae family (living/fossil samples of Acavus superbus, and sub fossil samples of Oligospira waltoni) collected from soils by digger method in 2005 and compared with 20 samples from the same area at presently available. The shell characters of snails such as, height, width, diameter of mouth, thickness of lip, and angular of axis were measured and subjected to multivariate analysis to understand how climatic variability and nature of paleo-diet contribute survival of Acavidae species. Results showed that Acavus superbus living species had large shell characteristics than the sub fossils. Results of similar study in the same climatic status in 2000 showed that the shell measurements of Acavus superbus are relatively larger than both living and sub fossils in Batadobalena cave. Ordination diagram derived from species shell characteristics showed that Acavus superbus living species grouped as scattered /diffuse clusters, while sub fossil species grouped as a single cluster at the center of the ordination diagram. It is imply a trend of speciation /diversification of Acavus species from Pleistocene era to date. Multivariate analyses prove that, a strong positive correlation of species characteristics, such as height (r = 0.62), thickness of lip (r = 0.544) and angular of axis (r = 0.744), and a strong negative relationship (r = 0.832) for shell width for the species were observed. Our results are useful to compare with other fossil snails to see whether the climate change influence for changing body size. In conclusion, palaeo-environment, and present environment variation has been occurred in minimum way without much changes to observed Acavidae species compositions present and past.

Keywords: Acavidae, Paleoecology, Batadombalena Cave, Sabaragamuwa Basin, Sri Lanka


LINKhttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/avutgs.2016.16.issue-2/avutgs-2016-0005/avutgs-2016-0005.xml?format=INT


මෙම  පර්යේෂණ කටයුතු 1#අරවින්ද රවිභානු මහතා විසින් භාරව ක්‍රියාකළ අතර 2#ආචාර්ය බුද්ධික මදුරප්පෙරුම, 3#ආචාර්ය ජානක කුරුප්පුආරච්චි, 4#මහාචාර්ය ජිනදාස කටුපොත , 5#ආචාර්ය කමල් අබේවර්ධන, 6#ආචාර්ය පත්මකුමාර ජයසිංහ යන පර්යේෂකයන් විසින් සිදුකරන් ලදී.

Family Acavidae samples from Batadombalena cave (A block: Living samples of Acavus superbus: A1,A2,A3, A4; B block: samples from 2005 excavation of Acavus superbus,B1,B2,B3,B4; and C1: Oligospira waltoni


Collaboration Universities & Institute
#1,#3.Faculty of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Sri Lanka.
#1The Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
#2Department of Forestry and Wildland Resources, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA, USA.
#1#,5,#6South Asian Astrobiology & Paleobiology Research Unit of Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka.
#6National Building Research Organization, Jawatta Rd., Colombo, Sri Lanka.
#1,#5Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

#4Department of Geography, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.


 APA
 Sumanarathna, A., Madurapperuma, B., Kuruppuarachchi, J., et al. (2016). Morphological Variation and Speciation of Acavidae Family: A Case Study from Fossil and Living Species of Batadombalena Cave Pre-historic Site in Sri Lanka. Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste, Geographical Series, 16(2), pp. 59-68. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2016, from doi:10.1515/avutgs-2016-0005

Chicago 
Sumanarathna, Aravinda Ravibhanu, Buddhika Madurapperuma, Janaka Kuruppuarachchi, et al. 2016. Morphological Variation and Speciation of Acavidae Family: A Case Study from Fossil and Living Species of Batadombalena Cave Pre-historic Site in Sri Lanka. Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste, Geographical Series. 16(2): 59-68. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2016, from doi:10.1515/avutgs-2016-0005

Friday, September 2, 2016

Behavioral Characteristics of Sri Lankan Elephants

Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature 

Jinadasa Katupotha1 , Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanarathna2 

ABSTRACT

 Two species of elephants are traditionally recognized, the African elephant (Loxodontaafricana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The Asian Elephant (also recognized as the Indian Elephant) is a large land animal (smaller than the African Elephant) that lives in India, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sri Lanka. This elephant is used extensively for labor; very few are left in the wild. Their life span is about 70 years. Classification of animals shows that the Sri Lankan elephants belong to Kingdom Animalia (animals), Phylum Chordata, Class Mammallia (mammals), Order Proboscidea, Family Elephantidae, Genus Elephas, Species E. maximus. Herds of elephants live in tight matriarchal family groups consisting of related females. A herd is led by the oldest and often largest female in the herd, called a matriarch. A herd would consist of 6-100 individuals depending on territory, environment suitability and family size. Compared to other mammals, elephants show signs of grief, joy, anger and have fun. They are extremely intelligent animals and have memories that would span many years. It is this memory that serves matriarchs well during dry seasons when they need to guide their herds, sometimes for tens of miles to watering holes that they remember from the past. Mating Season of the elephants is mostly during the rainy season and the gestation period is 22 months. At birth a calf (twins rare) weighs between 90 - 110 kg. As a calf's trunk at birth has no muscle quality it suckles with its mouth. It takes several months for a calf to gain full control of its trunk. The encroachment of habitats is one of the foremost threats facing elephants in Sri Lanka. Many climate change projections indicate that key portions of elephants’ habitat will become significantly hotter and drier, resulting in poorer foraging conditions, directly threatening calf survival. Increasing conflict with human population and poaching for ivory is additional threats that place the Sri Lankan elephant’s future at great risk. Keywords: Sri Lankan elephants, Behavioral characteristics, Matriarchal family, foremost threats, Future risk 

1Department of Geography, University of Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, 10250, Sri Lanka 
2South Asian Astrobiology & Palaeobiology Research Unit of Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka.











Asian Elephants in Culture & Nature 2016 University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka 

Saturday, June 4, 2016

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION & PALEOENVIROMENT OF THE RAKWANA-PANNILA MOUNTAIN - SRI LANKA


GEOLOGICAL FORMATION & PALEOENVIROMENT OF THE RAKWANA-PANNILA MOUNTAIN - SRI LANKA

Sumanarathna. A.R1,2,3,  Wijayathunga. W.A.L.K1,2, Silva E.I.P4,  Hathalahawaththa D.K1,  Fernando G.W.A.R.2, Sewwnadi SL2 , Silva.A.C2
1. South Asian Astrobiology & Palaeobiology Research Unit of Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka
2. Faculty of Natural Science, The Open University of Sri Lanka, PO Box 21, Nugegoda
3. Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya
4. Faculty of Applied Sciences University of Sri Jayewardenepura,Nugegoda

The Rakwana mountain range, which is located in the margin of the northern side of Sinharaja,UNESCO world heritage site, is an area having rich bio–diversity,included unique geological formations such as limestone caves etc. Numerous fossils of  Elephants(Elephas spp.), Gaur(Bos gaurus), Sambar Deer (Rusa unicolor), Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros kangawena), Red dogs(Cuon sinhaleyus), Hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon sinhaleyus) & Tiger (Panthera tigris) dated to 17,000-13,000 ybp belongs to the Pleistocene Epoch, could be identified during the recent excavations of the alluvial deposits in Sabaragamu basin. Isolated living Elephants, Sambar Deer & Eel (Anguilliformes ssp.) are unique to this area. The detailed study of the limestone cavern at Pannila mountain revealed that it is of 750 meters in length. The height of the cave entrance is 300 cm (3.5 feets) of which 60 cm filled with water, where special cave characteristics are visible. Stalagmite and stalactites of  5 m height formed after re-crystallization of pre-existing limestones could also be observed at the core of the cave. The studied limestone cave popularly known as ‘Pannila Hunugala’ is a part of the basement marble bed in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka belongs to the Precambrian age. It is postulated that the same marble bed is extended to the marble beds located at the Samanalawewa, Waulpane and Rakwana. The action of chemical weathering occurred in the recent times makes it secondary features like stalagmite and stalactite. It is interesting to study that the existence of animal fossils within and around the cave is an indication of the period of cave formation, which probably contemporaneously to the Pleistocene Epoch. It was reported in the literature that during the Pleistocene Epoch, the entire island  experienced heavy rain fall resultant the growing of thick rain forests, of  which Sinharaja is one of the best existing example (Deraniyagala 1958). These heavy showers created large lakes and marshes in the Sabaragamuwa basin providing habitats for a number of marsh-loving mammals and other animal species mentioned above that were once lived in Sri Lanka and have got extinct as a result of the Earth’s Precession change in the following period.


Fig 01 : Distribution of limestone (+ marble) formation in Sri lanka
A.Pannila Hunugala(Sinharaja heritage site)  , C. Cavity of  right bank at river level in Samanalawewa. , D . Handagiriya( Balangoda), B.Model  for action of chemical  weathering formations of  limestone cave.


Key Words:Sinharaja Forest, Crystalline Limestone, Paleontology, Pleistocene Geology, Sri Lanka


Copyright©Palaeontology Network PGIAR –Palaeobiodiversity Batch 2015- 2016 

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

EXTICTION OF QUATERNARY MAMMALIAN HABITATS OF MEGAFAUNA IN SABARAGAMU BASIN - SRI LANKA

EXTICTION OF QUATERNARY MAMMALIAN HABITATS OF MEGAFAUNA IN SABARAGAMU BASIN - SRI LANKA
 1#Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanarathna 2Jinadasa Katupotha 3Kamal Abeywardana

1,3 South Asian Astrobiology & Palaeobiology Research Unit of Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka.
2 Department of Geography: University of Jayawardenepura
1Faculty of Enviroment & Natural Science University of Southampton –United Kingdom

Email: Ara22ravibhanu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The Quaternary includes two geologic epochs: the Pleistocene and the Holocene. Both epochs divided to faunal stages and human cultural phases based on climate and sea level cycles for the past three million years. Quaternary ice age begins roughly 2.58 Ma with cool and dry climate conditions. Australopithecines and many of the extinct genera of mammalian mega fauna appeared in this time. Thus, the Quaternary period show the extinctions of numerous predominantly larger, especially mammalian mega faunal species, many of them lived during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch. The debate on the demise of the mammalian megafauna is often characterized by two highly polarized points of view: (1) climate-induced extinction; and (2) human-induced extinction. In Pleistocene period most parts of the Northern Hemisphere were covered with glaciers creating a cold climate. Due to this glacial formation the main sea level was much lower than today. The low sea level facilitated the connection of Sri Lanka with the Indian mainland with a land bridge. Therefore a number of mega and micro fauna was able to cross to Sri Lanka from India. The last land bridge was emerged around 7500 yr BP. In Pleistocene era Sri Lanka experienced heavy rainfall and covered with rain forest. These heavy showers in the Sabaragamu basin provide habitats for a number of Marsh loving mammals and other animals. However at the end of Pleistocene the climate changes resulted in the extinction of  number of a animals. Pleistocene fauna in Sri Lanka is known as Rathnapura Fauna. These fossils were found in alluvial deposits of Sabaragamu basins.

Key Words:    Quaternary mammalian, Sabaragamu Basin, Ratnapura fauna, Extinction, Gem        gravels.


Paranomic view of Mount Sri Pada
During the Pleistocene, Sri Lanka experienced heavy rain fall and the entire island was covered with rain forests. These heavy showers created large lakes and marshes in Sabaragamuwa basin providing habitats for a number of marsh loving mammals and other animals.Image © Aravinda Ravibhanu 2013



Monday, May 16, 2016

Balangoda Hominins & Evolution of Sabaragamu Dance- Sri Lanka


 THE ROYAL ASIATEC SOCIETY OF SRI LANKA 9th Annual Research Conference 2016                            ISSN 1800 - 4067



Balangoda Hominins & Evolution of  Sabaragamu Dance- Sri Lanka

1Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanarathna  2D.D.Kuruppu Bandara  3Iasmina Livia Hornoiu
1,2South Asian Astrobiology & Palaeobiology Research Unit  of  Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka.
1Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology-University of Kelaniya
2Sri Palee Campus Performing Arts -University of Colombo
3Faculty of Life Sciences - University of Manchester – United Kingdom
1Faculty of  Enviroment & Natural Science- University of Southampton - United Kingdom



It is seen that the evolution of Sabaragamuwa Dance has been created due to the promotion of Imitation with Adaptation Motion of the Sri Lankan ‘Vedda’ (ancestors of Sri Lanka). When studying the Palebiodiversity, Paleoantology and Archeology related to Sri Lanka, the imitation with adaptation motion has been started in the latter part of Pleistocene epoch where the Balangoda Hominins are found. Homo sapiens balangodensis was named by Dr. P.E.P. Deraniyagala in 1955 as a subspecies of Homo sapiens. Strong and large jaws, short neck, well developed teeth, short forehead are unique features of Balngoda Hominins. According to the external morphological characteristics and habitual characteristics, there is a high likelihood for Vedda to be the live biological linkage of the Balangoda Hominins.The behavioral nature of man lived around the caves depends on the Paleo-neurology activities.  As a result the Pre-Gesture has been created. It is bonded with the relative consistency of the number organisms of species struggle for the existence, survival of the fittest and adaptation for living through the natural selection. The evolution of imitation can be seen as a virtual motion through the expression of feelings in human niche. The resonance motion results through the stimulation of the basic imitation has been a common rule. The horizontal and vertical oscillations in the locomotion of the Balangoda Hominins can be observed in the traditional dances of the Vedda. The basic necessities of the Sabaragamuwa dancing style is same as the neo-motions developed through the  pre element of motion  described above.  Though the Sabaragamuwa dancing takes a traditional vies, in the viewpoint of science it has to be changed according to the time. If  homo sapiens is to evolve more, then the motions of the traditional dancing is changing accordingly.

Demostration of  Imitation with Adaptation Motion of Sabaragamu dancing 

Keywords: Balangoda Man (Homo sapiens balangodensis),Vedda,Sabaragamu Dance,Paleo neurology,Virtual motion 

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Zoo Archeaology Event for Palaeobiodiversity Diploma Student

Zoo Archeaology Event for Palaeobiodiversity Diploma Student

Sri Lanka Has been Famous as a tourist location since ancient time. Named the “Pearl of the Indian Ocean”. It has been visited written about and acclaimed in many ancient chronicles. Being close to the equator, it has a year – round sunny weather and with its topography it harbors a host of rich biodiversity promoting Paleobiodiversity & Paleontology.Palaeo biodiversity is the biodiversity of ancient times. It addresses ancient man and his interaction with his palaeo environment. It Speak of the geological eras, the prehistoric people.

Zoo Museum of National zoological Garden Sri Lanka


 National Zoological  Garden of Sri lanka

To providing knowledge of Palaeobiodiversity & zooarcheaology including osteology,work shop event had organized for Palaeobiodiversity  diploma student  of  PGIAR university of  Kelaniya Sri Lanka.The Event held on 9th of  may 8.30 am  onwards in National Zoological garden Sri Lanka.
 Osteological Demostration by Mr. Kelum Manamendraarachchi 


Zoo Museum of National zoological Garden Sri Lankan exhibit many type of anotomical parals which belongs to fuana


To providing knowledge of Palaeobiodiversity & zooarcheaology including osteology,work shop event had organized for Palaeobiodiversity  diploma student  of  PGIAR university of  Kelaniya Sri Lanka.The Event held on 9th of  may 8.30 am  onwards in National Zoological garden Sri Lanka.



Special Thank goes to : Mr. Kleum-N .Manamendra arachchi ,Miss Sonali Premarathna
Ext cor: Sujeewa Chnadana ,Pubudu Vidyarathna, Paaramee Munasing he  & etc.

Post by: PALEONTOLOGY NETWORK OF PGIAR 
                Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanarathna